Before continuing to read the text below, a few things need to be elaborated on. Background information that gives more insight. Firstly, mention must be made about the role of the Serbian Orthodox church in the 19th century, the times of the first actual appearance of it on Croatian soil, mainly around the 18th century after the so-called Serb Migrations from Ottoman Turk controlled Serbia, (Sanjak of Smederevo) as well as the older history of Orthodoxy in Croatia before migration of any Serbs.
Although especially now, and for over a thousand years, because of history and the politico-cultural movements over the centuries, Croatia has been tied overwhelmingly to Western Europe culturally and Roman Catholicism civilizationally for many centuries, like a number of other Central European nations. However the fact remains that there was at times an Orthodox/Byzantine rite presence in the Croatian lands long before the appearance of Serbs. Croatia was for centuries a bulwark against Ottoman Turks encroaching onto the European continent, but even before that it was a Kingdom that was situated at times as the dividing line between Catholic Western Europe and the Byzantine East. There were even times when Croats in some areas belonged to the Byzantine Rite church,(or more precisely the Eastern/Greek Catholic churches, which was common even in Italy) During the early years of Croatian statehood in the 9th century to 11th century, Croatian kings and rulers made alliances and agreements with Rome, The Franks and even the Bulgarians as well as Constantinople/Byzantium whenever the need arose or proved to be advantageous to the Croatian Kings.
The Eparchy of Križevci later was a monumental example of catering to Greek Catholic rite Croats centuries later. (This was very unpopular with the newly arrived Serbs however. After the Ottoman defeat in the Battle of Sisak of 1593, the Habsburgs established an ecclesiastical jurisdiction in full communion with Rome and separate from the Serbian Orthodox Church, on 17 November 1735, the supporters of the Serbian Orthodox Church occupied by force of arms the monastery of Marča and two years later, on 17 June 1737, set fire to it. The monastery was restored to the Byzantine-Rite Catholics in 1753 but many Orthodox Serbs opposed the new eparchy and viewed it with disdain) The Serbian orthodox leadership were proclaiming that they should be the only church to have authority and jurisdiction over any and all Orthodox or Byzantine-rite people. Some instances of Catholic churches being outright taken by Serbs have been documented.
So even well after the collapse of the Byzantine Empire, a few pockets of these Eastern rite churches still existed. Through the following centuries, especially along the coastal areas during the "Age of Empires", some Byzantine rite churches sprang up in response to Orthodox people arriving......traveling merchants, soldiers and sailors from Russia and Greece, and to a lesser degree, from Ukraine and Romania in some areas. The late 18th century Orthodox church of St. Elias in Zadar being a prime example. (Which I also saw in person in 2011 and found out many of these and more interesting facts) These few and far between Orthodox churches were however for the most part just churches that catered to ALL of these Orthodox rite people in that area, including Croats. However, after the first noticeable appearance of Serbs arriving from Ottoman areas in the 18th century as mentioned, suddenly many of these churches started to become strictly Serbian Orthodox churches. People and communities who attended services there for years were suddenly forced to become Serbian orthodox or flee. Over time, much later, during the first Yugoslavia in the 20th century, the Serbian royal dictatorship even started the practice of building Serbian churches in Non-Serb lands where there wasn't even a population of Serbs or even of any Orthodox people to speak of, up to even building an arrant Serb church in the city of Ljubiljana. (All this is just some good background information to know) For more about the facts discussed this far see croatianmedievalhistory.blogspot.ca and strossmayeryugoslavia.blogspot.ca
Another example, and this information is omitted on Wikipedia for obvious reasons by you know who. (Wikipedia isn't an encyclopedia run by scholars and historians remember, it's information to be used as a general starting point about topics and relies completely on the goodwill of members to (hopefully) only include sourced verified material, however there are plenty of agenda driven members adding false information, omitting and twisting facts to suit their views all over the place, then the average unfamiliar reader will believe various lies). The Zagreb Orthodox Cathedral is today considered a Serbian Orthodox cathedral, mainly because of politics over just only the past century and a half. What isn't mentioned is this. The church was originally the Catholic church of St. Margaret which belonged to the Zagreb diocese, and was mentioned even in 1334 as the parish church next to which "St. Margaret fairs" were held. Later the church was added to the parish church of St. Mark and in 1794 it was sold to Greek Orthodox merchants who worked in Zagreb as merchants and bankers and were a beneficial people to be included into Croatian society, contributing in and promoting many spheres of Croatian culture. When the number of Greeks was reduced after a time, orthodox Serbs then started moving into the city, (again attempting to promote the idea to the Austro-Hungarian empire that they are the only orthodox people in the Croatian lands, and so then they started using the church as well. In a short time the remaining Greeks had to leave or were coerced into learning Serbian script and language and thus becoming Serbs. This was similarly done to other pockets of Orthodox or Greek Catholic parishioners). Due to it's age, the old church was demolished and on its place the present Cathedral of the Transfiguration of The Lord was built. Because of its history, the street behind the church is today called Margaretska, and the one going in front of the church is called Transfigurations. It was built in 1866 and was designed by a Croatian architect Franjo Klein. In 1883-1884, it was restored by an Austrian architect Hermann Bollé. That was when the historical iconostasis with icons were added to the church, made by painter Epaminondas Bučevski from Černovci in Bukovina. Bollé restored the church two more times, in 1899 when the new cap tower was put and in 1913/ 1914 when the front of the church was completely modified. During all this time the Serbian community totally usurped the church and vehememently considered it to be strictly Serbian.
....Does this Orthodox/Greek Catholic presence bother me? Not at all. Why should it? Croatia will never be an Orthodox country or people because Croatia's historical course, cultural ties and direction were for the most part set in stone well over a thousand years ago. However, if a segment wants to use a Byzantine/Greek rite these days, all the power to them. They will still be Croatian in Croatian lands. These days you can find Croatian Pagans, atheists, secular humanists, polytheists, Jewish, Lutheran and other denominations, maybe not many but they are there. In Croatia you can even find followers of other religions, even followers of Hare Krishna , Church of Scientology and other groups/new age movements. (Although I'm concerned especially with Jehova Witnesses, Mormons and American Televangelist types making a presence in Croatia, or other types of cults that just want your money and mind) I guess my main point is that if there is a need or desire for a formation of a Croatian Orthodox Church on Croatian soil these days, by Croats who want to use the Greek rite, then so be it. As mentioned, there was already a Byzantine rite Croatian presence in some places back during the formation of the earliest Croat realms, principalities, dukedoms and kingdom., just like in some other Slavic nations. Who am I to say they can't, mustn't and are forbidden too?...Let alone some religious body or organization from another country tell them they can't
|(If you find this piece interesting, you may also like to find out more related information at strossmayeryugoslavia.blogspot.ca regarding the origins of the word/concept of "Yugoslavia" and what exactly the meaning and ideas behind it were. Also, croatianmedievalhistory.blogspot.ca would be of interest to people who would like to know more about Croatia's very early history, from even before we arrived to the Adriatic, which I only touched upon here. *There's a cool documentary video series there too, swords, chainmail armor, battles, intrigue, special effects and all that*)|
Since the beginning of the Christian era, the Greek Orthodox religion has spread into Croatia due to the periodic settlement of various ethnic groups. Orthodox Christians gradually assimilated into Croatian society over the millennia and together with Catholic Croats they formed an integral part of the 19th and 20th century Croatian national struggle. Until the end of WWII a Croatian Orthodox church existed. These facts have been deliberately censored from history, with fatal consequences. These Orthodox people, or 'Pravoslavac' (as they are colloquially known) should have their own Orthodox church in Croatia, but their human rights are denied by the EU's pro-Serbian tradition.
Visible signs appear everywhere that Serbian nationalism is being presented as multiculturalism. For example, in Bosnia and Hercegovina a new statue of 'Multicultural Man' stands in stark contrast to the backdrop of a segregated country where Serbia rules over 49% of the territory. And in Lika, Croatia, a new statue of Nikola Tesla and Tesla multimedia museum are used by Serbia to justify their propaganda and control over all Orthodox people in Croatia. Less than one quarter of the 4.5% Orthodox Christians in the 2001 Croatian census are of Serbian ancestry but all of those ethnic groups are included in Serbian propaganda numbers to justify Serbian territorial expansion in Croatia.
Anatomy of Identity Theft
The identity of the Orthodox people in Croatia has been stolen by Serbia. The Serbian propaganda claims to ethnicity in Croatia are so ridiculous that doubt overshadows credibility. One Serbian website even claims that Serbs created the Croatian national movement in the 19th century, a movement which incidentally they criticize at the same time as having an anti-Serbian platform.
The 17th century migration of Serbian people led by their church Patriarchs into north-east Croatia (Vojvodina) occurred simultaneously with political changes there, following the Ottoman decline. This migration gradually led to Serbian political claims over a wide geographical area of Croatia. By 1848 the Serbian Patriarchate of Srijemski Karlovci was established in Habsburg-occupied Croatian lands.
Meanwhile, in 1879 the Serbian Orthodox Church in Serbia regained its autocephaly and in 1882 the Kingdom of Serbia was recognized. Thus, by 1883 in Croatia, the first Serbian Orthodox schools appeared, and the Serbian flag was being used in their orthodox churches there. The ethnic status quo in 19th century Hapsburg-occupied Croatia therefore began to change when the Serbian Orthodox Patriarchate was given the opportunity to take over existing Greek Orthodox churches.
By the end of the 19th century most former Greek Orthodox Churches in Croatia were taken over by Serbian priests, and Serbia in this way began to claim all Orthodox people as Serbian constituent people in Croatia. The choice that emerged was to be either Serbian Orthodox or Catholic Croatian under Austrian/Italian or Hungarian administration.
Following the union of Serbia with the state of Serbs Croats and Slovenes, the Serbian Patriarchate of Srijemski Karlovci was shifted to Belgrade in 1920. By 1931 and the creation of the Serbian dictatorship, the constitution and reorganisation of the Serbian Orthodox church was finalized. From this time all Orthodox peoples of the whole of Yugoslavia, including Croatia, became classified officially as of Serbian ancestry no matter what their ethnic background.
During WWII a Croatian Orthodox church accommodated the orthodox minorities in Croatia. But after WWII the Croatian Orthodox hierarchy (under Metropolitan Germogen) was executed by orders from Belgrade, and their cathedrals became officially Serbian-a fact little mentioned in history books. In communist Yugoslavia a nationalist Serbian hegemony was threatened by the existence of the extant Eastern Orthodox Church in Croatia, even though the Greek Orthodox faith there preceded Serbian Orthodoxy. In contrast, the situation with the Catholic church in the former Yugoslavia was more tolerant. A Vatican protocol restricted the church activities, and thus even Cardinal Stepinac was spared an execution following his trial. (Up to 500 Franciscans and Catholic Priests were murdered however by Serbian-led communists after WWII.)
First Apostles in Croatia
In the context of Croatian history we can say that at the time of St. Paul's second imprisonment in Rome, he sent his disciple Titus to Solin or Salona on the Dalmatian coast, where he founded the first Christian See there in AD 65. (see Timothy 2, 4:10) St. Paul had himself travelled and preached as far as Illyricum, today's Croatia, during his third missionary journey between AD 53 and 57. (see Romans 15:19) 10 In addition, many early settlements in Croatia came under the jurisdiction of Constantinople.
Orthodox Vlachs in Croatia
It is said that the Ottomans brought with them nomadic Vlachs (Morlacchi or Wallachs, etc.) to settle land depopulated by either the plague or those who had fled or died during the Ottoman invasion. The majority of these Vlachs of the Orthodox faith were mostly assimilated into Croatian civilization by the 18th century, between Istria and Dubrovnik, and throughout the Lika, Dalmatia and other parts of Croatia. Often these Orthodox settlers along the Adriatic coast had been deliberately forced to inland Croatia by Venice and its Allies, during and after the Ottoman retreat (for example, the Uskoks of Senj)
If these Vlachs had been of Serbian ancestry as claimed, why is it that the land where they originated from was known as 'Turkish Croatia' at the time? (ie: large parts of Bosnia and Hercegovina that was previously part of the Croatian Kingdom) In addition, if these migrating Vlachs had been exclusively of mixed Serbian ancestry as claimed by their propagandists it is unlikely that they would have been at the centre of the enlightenment debate. After all, the Vlachs were the virtuous so-called 'noble savages' romanticized by Rousseau. In conflict with Rousseau, Voltaire cited the 'Morlaque' of Dalmatia as an example of people who had a lowly place in the development of enlightened civilization.
(Vlachs never had a tradition of their own state because they were primarily countless tribes, and did not have their own churches, lacked cities, had no elite culture,and mainly lived by seasonal migration. In the summer they would go with the summer breeze, and in the winter stayed in the valleys. Vlachs were and are actually just various Slavic languages names for Romans. Even still today in Poland the word for Italy is "Włochy" (Vloky). Parts of a diverse old-Balkan erea population that were completely or partially Romanized in various ways in various parts of the region. Those in the 14th century especially began to completely lose their old Roman based language if they used it anymore at all. Already during the medieval Serbia in 1349 when their ruler Dusan compiled the "Dusan's Code", it included laws prohibiting the marriages and mixing of Vlachs with Serbs, so then many simply became Serbs by ethnicity. Early in the aftermath of the Battle of Kosovo in 1389 and end of the Serbian monarchial rule and beginning of 500 years Turkish occupation, masses of populations of these Balkan cattle breeder Vlachs began to move, however not because the Turks were pushing them out but because they were looking for safer and more attractive places to live. As remaining Serb princes and nobles quickly switched sides to serve the Ottomans for greater personal tax-free land holdings and privileges, along with many Serbs many of the Vlachs also joined auxiliary services under Ottoman command detachments for tax-relief. A large segment of the Vlachs that didn't convert however also decided to travel further west and north behind the Ottoman forces approaching the Croatian and Hungarian borders Habsburg lands, moving into areas of Bosnia. But again they came from the Orthodox sphere but they did not have their own Vlach Orthodox priests, churches or monasteries or any cultural elite community and society and not even living in any of the cities, for this reason they were treated as mainly an annex addition of the Serbian church at that time, (in Macedonia they had the same problems as Serb religious authorities and patriarchs refused, and still do refuse, to recognize any other autochthonous Orthodox church, populations or peoples), even though the Vlachs weren't Serbs and didn't identify themselves as being Serbs. Only in the later19th century and the now free Serbian Orthodox church leadership, as the Ottoman empire was almost finished and weakening, with church politics dealings press on with the erroneous scheme (and outright lie), that the Vlach people especially those of the Orthodox faith, have always been Serbs since always. (this middle to later 19th century time is also the era when the very first agendas started being promulgated in nationalist circles in Serbia, backroom grumblings and declarations envisioning a future "Greater Serbia", even though Serbia was still partly occupied by the Ottoman empire at the time and the Croatian crown lands were free as part of the Habsburg monarchy.
In one of many sources which allude to the true ethnicity of the original Orthodox in Croatia, Larry Wolff (in Venice and the Slavs) writes that "The heterogeneous Orthodox society of Zadar included Greek and Russian soldiers and Sarajevo merchants ... and (others) from Corfu and Crete. The Venetians were concerned to reduce foreign influence on Orthodox Dalmatians, including the Morlacchi".
The presence of Vlachs is established in history, philosophy, novels, decrees or statutes, and place names on genuine original maps. 12 Place names such as Latinski Islam or Grcki Islam or the Vlasko More, as well the existence of former Greek or Eastern rite churches in Croatia testify to the existence and identity of the Vlachs and other Orthodox people in Croatia. Vlachs spoke an old vulgar Latin language and used the Latin script and this is no doubt why only five per cent of Misha Glenny's so-called-Krajina Serbs understood the Cyrillic script, something Glenny incorrectly attributed to an alleged Croatian government policy instead of to their actual original Non-Serbian ancestry. The country of Romania is the only country in that region of Europe that can rightfully claim the Vlachs as their own, as Romanian is the most similar to the original Vlach old Roman based language and ethnic identity extending back to those times.
Orthodox Stradioti in Croatia
The Stradioti were brought-in by the Venetians from occupied Greece to fight land battles in occupied Croatia. For half a millennium the Stradioti were behind the establishment of the Eastern Greek Orthodox communities in Venetian occupied Croatia. Their existence has been documented in Venetian archives and by many other European contemporaneous sources. Not only did the borders of Venetian occupation change frequently but forced migrations of these Orthodox communities also occurred, leading to new settlements in inland Croatia.
And there were other Orthodox in Croatia including Croats, Czechs, Greeks, Macedonians, Romanians, Russians, Ukrainians, etc. All along the Adriatic coast, and inland, Greek Orthodox churches were built to serve the various Orthodox settlers, many becoming Uniate churches later.
Other evidence of the existence of the Croatian Orthodox people is available. In Zagreb the church known as St. Margaret was first a Greek Orthodox church. St. Margaret was first a Greek Orthodox church and later taken over by the Serbian Orthodox Church. Today's church of the Serbian Orthodox Metropolis of Zagreb-Ljubljana on Preobrazenska Street Zagreb was originally the Greek Orthodox Church of St. Preobrazenja on Petar Preradovic Square, built in 1866 on the site of a former Catholic church.
Likewise in Sarajevo or Zadar or Lika, the churches now called Serbian Orthodox were originally known as and operated as Greek Orthodox churches which had been built or converted to accommodate the Eastern Orthodox faith to the various settlers therein. In Sarajevo what is now a Serbian Saborna Church was once a Greek Orthodox church that was built in 1882 on the site of Freedom Square (formerly Tomislav Square).
The Orthodox church of St. Ilijha in Zadar (St. Elias) once served the Greek Orthodox community there and by far not only the Serbs. St. Ilija's Church (St. Elias) church built in 1773 in place of a medieval church (1563) of the same name once served the Greek Orthodox congregation of Russian soldiers, merchants or sailors who had settled there, as well as locals. St. Ilijah only came under the Serbian Dalmatian Eparchy at the end of the 19th century. According to the above-mentioned author Wolff, Obradovic, a visiting Serbian-born pioneer of Serbian ultranationalism in Croatia, was preaching in Zadar in 1771 to what he called a "Schismatic" Orthodox community, but was denied settlement in Skradin because Venetian authorities did not want a 'foreign' influence on the Orthodox rite Dalmatians, Morlacchi or Croats. If the Orthodox settlements there had been Serbian then how would the situation arise that a visiting Serbian priest would be called a 'foreigner' by the Venetian authorities? If the so-called slavicized Orthodox were under "foreign" threat from a visiting Serb, it is not likely that they were at that point in time of mixed Serbian origin. In 1876 in Skradin itself a new church replaced the original Greek Orthodox church which at some point was eventually taken over by Serbian priests and then turned into a strictly Serbian Orthodox church
This take-over pattern was repeated in many settlements throughout Dalmatia and Croatia and is part of the oral history of the local inhabitants, also and to speak of it in public under the former communist Yugoslav regime or in Royalist Yugoslavia would have meant instant arrest or death. Today it appears that pro-Serbian EU policy has taken over the role of the former Yugoslav government with an agenda of anti-Croatian conditions, or more precisely as seen in the 90's especially, lobbying for conditions that are against all Non-Serbs.
According to the book about the life of Pavlinovic, a 19th century Croatian priest, on the topic of the Orthodox faith in Croatia, the Orthodox peoples of Croatia were not Serbian. According to Pavlinovic the Orthodox in Croatia were members of the old Croatian Greek Orthodox church from the early middle ages, for example, Vlachs or Romanians, Greeks, and other merchants who had assimilated into Croatian society under the Habsburg dynasty. These Vlachs had been recognized as such in Venetian and Habsburg statues since the 17th century. (Vlachs and Wallachian was a very commonly used European languages exonym and historical term used for Eastern Romance-speaking peoples in Eastern Europe, mainly peoples from the population in present-day Romania and Moldova)
To sum up, the Orthodox Minorities in Croatia include:
- descendants of original inhabitants of Pannonia or Dalmatia,
- the first Croatian settlers, descendants of Croatian Catholics who willingly or forcibly were converted to Orthodoxy
- descendants of Orthodox Vlachs (introduced by Ottomans into Croatia)
- descendants of Orthodox Straddiotti (merchants originating from Turkish occupied Greece under Venetian era),
- other descendants of Czech, Greek, Russian, Romanian, Macedonian, Ukrainian or other Eastern European immigrants, and among this latter group Serbs are only one of the ethnic groups who came.
Nikola Tesla's Anniversary
On the occasion of the Tesla anniversary in July 2006 the American Ambassador Robert Bradtke visited Tesla's birthplace, Smiljan, north of Gospic in Lika Croatia with the Croatian and Serbian leadership. Mr Bradtke's message about the Tesla anniversary had a diplomatic tone, as he recalled a message from President Bush to President Mesic that "Nikola Tesla is proof that real greatness surpasses national borders and differences".
Elsewhere around Croatia the 150th anniversary of Nikola Tesla's birth has been marketed as evidence of some sort of mythical rapprochement between Serbs and Croats, or as a unifying force in the Balkans. 15 The Year 2006 was proclaimed 'Nikola Tesla Year' by the Croatian government and by UNESCO and the Serbian government.
Around the world However, in contrast to assimilation in America, when there is reference to the Orthodox people in Croatia, the assimilation argument is missing, referring instead to an alleged several hundred years of Serbian settlement in Croatia, without documentation.
The Washington Times headline claims "Tesla's Memory a healing force" (16 July 06). On the Institute for War & Peace Reporting website, D. Hedl claims "Inventor's Memory Brings Croats and Serbs together" (20 July 06). The Setimes website claims "Croats, Serbs put aside differences to honour Tesla" (13 July 06). And the Tesla Memorial Society of New York claim on their website that "Nikola Tesla is a unifying force for peace in the Balkans"; and that the "Proclamation of Nikola Tesla Day through United Nations will increase the brotherhood and peace in the Balkans and throughout the world"! On the Western Australian Science website Serbs celebrate the "Serbian-American" who lit up the world (14 June 06). The Canadian Serbian community celebrated Tesla's anniversary at Niagara Falls calling Tesla "the greatest son of the Serb nation". And the Archive of the Nikola Tesla Museum in Belgrade has been named by UNESCO as "Memory of the World". (Tesla Society website) And in the UK David Bowie is to star in a new film about Tesla entitled "The Prestige".
Nikola Tesla's Ancestry
Talk about Tesla's ancestry was different during his lifetime however, for example when a different American Consul visited Gospic, as told in the chapter, 'A Night in Lika' in a book by Dorothea Orr in 1936. 16 The US Ambassador had visited decades ago in the early 1930s not long after Tesla had appeared on the front of Time Magazine (Vol XV III No. 3, 1931 20 July). On that occasion in Gospic the US Ambassador didn't see any reason to mention Tesla even though the centralist Serbian dictatorship ruled over Croatia! Even in America, during Tesla's lifetime little interest appeared in his ethnicity. Any major public association with Serbian identity seems to have taken place after Tesla's death for political gain.
Tesla's anniversary was not the first time a large gathering was attracted in his name. In January 1943 Serbia or Royalist Yugoslavia was an important WWII western ally, and Tesla's funeral was obviously a convenient platform to express this alliance. Tesla's funeral was a large 'Yugoslav' event in New York. And, at his eulogy the famous Mayor of New York City, LaGuardia, born to Italian and Hungarian Jewish parents from Trieste, described Tesla as the son of a Greek clergyman who had been born in Austria-Hungary and graduated from school in Croatia! He would have chosen his words carefully. LaGuardia had also worked in the US Consulate in Trieste before working at Ellis Island as a translator, eventually rising to the rank of major on the Italian Austrian WWI frontline, then becoming director general for UNRRA in 1946.
Tesla's father, whose real family name was Draganic had been ordained at what had originally been a Greek Orthodox Church, not a Serbian Orthodox church. If there was any portion of Serbian ethnicity in the Draganic or maternal Mandic line it would have originated several hundred years before his ancestors arrival in Hercegovina. Tesla did not attend a Serbian school because none existed at the time in Croatia. Some of the Orthodox churches throughout Dalmatia and Lika we see today were not there when Nikola Tesla was born. The 18th century church of St. Peter & St. Paul (where Nikola Tesla's father was a priest) was renovated several times, but for some unexplained reason it appears that after WWII its façade was changed from the original architectural style to an earlier pilaster style.
St. Peter & Paul Church, Smiljan, Lika Croatia Before WWII
St. Peter & Paul Church, Smiljan, Lika Croatia After WWII
In spite of all this however, even Tesla identified himself as a Croat on his arrival at the Castle Garden Immigration office in Manhattan in 1884, even though the Croatian region of his birth was administered from Austria and not directly from Croatia at the time Tesla was living there. In other words, Tesla did not have to say he was from Croatia, and could have said he was from Austria, so he freely made his choice. In any case, Tesla was not the type of individual to overly concern himself emotionally with other people, politics or national fanfare, as it has been acknowledged today that he displayed classic autistic-savant characteristics (similar to well-known Temple Grandin).
The pro-Yugoslav sculptor Ivan Mestrovic, of Croatian birth, had created monuments to honour Tesla as a 'Yugoslav', not as a 'Serb', in America and Belgrade.
And there are other reasons to question the ethnic origin of Nikola Tesla. Tesla's ashes had not been held at an American Serbian church grounds, nor was there ever a bust of Tesla by the Serbian church where Mihajlo Pupin's monument can be found. In addition, if Tesla had really been Serbian, would it not be the case that the Serbian-born scientist and Serbian activist (and one-time Serbian Ambassador in US) M. Pupin in America would have come to his aid in 1911 (Serbia was a recognized nation at that time) when Tesla had a mental breakdown due to the lack of funding for his Wardenclyffe project on Long Island.
Indeed, one website which highlights how Tesla has been virtually erased from American history attributes this to the fact that Tesla did not have large segments of the general public complaining on his behalf. It would appear obvious that until recently Tesla has been almost ignored by Serbia, an observation which is surprising when one considers the might of the former Yugoslav or Serbian lobby in America!
Only after his death did Tesla become more important to Belgrade. The main source of claims to Tesla's Serbian ancestry seem to have originated from Sava N. Kosanovic, a member of the Yugoslav Mission to the USA in New York during WWII. Tesla's sister had married a Serb, and Sava Kosanovic was their son suggesting perhaps that Tesla's association with Serbian ethnicity occurred indirectly through marriage of his relatives, and not through his ancestors.
Nikola Tesla's passport from 25th November 1883. Note in the top left and center the official passport declaration of the government authority and coat of arms of the Croatian Triune KingdomAt his eulogy the famous Mayor of New York City, LaGuardia, born to Italian and Hungarian Jewish parents from Trieste, described Tesla as the son of a Greek clergyman who had been born in Austria-Hungary and graduated from school in Croatia! He would have chosen his words carefully. ... Tesla's father, whose real family name was Draganic had been ordained at what had originally been a Greek Orthodox Church, not a Serbian Orthodox church, , even Tesla identified himself as a Croat on his arrival at the Castle Garden Immigration office in Manhattan in 1884, even though the Croatian lands of his birth was administered from Austria and not directly from Croatia at the time Tesla was living there. When one includes the hush-hush little known fact that Tesla received no monetary assistance or support from the Belgrade government or especially from any of the various American-Serb organizations, especially in his later years, claims after his death appear contradictory. It seems that seeing Tesla as strictly a Serb is a later construct, a product of Serbian nationalist propaganda. (Example: In 1924 Tesla left the Hotel St. Regis in New York owing a debt of over $3,000. After having moved out over six months earlier and never making an effort to resolve the debt, Tesla was sued for the balance. Shortly afterward, a sheriff's deputy was sent to Tesla's office at 8W 40th St. to seize furnishings in order to satisfy the debt. Tesla managed to persuade the officer to grant him an extension. Soon after he meets Ivan Meštrović in New York, an internationally renowned Croatian sculptor. They became good friends and admirers of each other and later exchanged numerous letters. In the years just prior to his death, even though Tesla did not have any funds, he specifically asked Meštrović make a bust of himself and that it not be sent to Serbia, but rather displayed in Croatia after his death. The Tesla statue was made by Meštrović after his death and currently resides at the Ruđer Bošković Institute in Zagreb. Tesla actually refused numerous times invitations by the Serb king to move to Belgrade, yet he never received a penny or any financial support from him or from the Belgrade government)
The Politics of Reconciliation
The expression of one's ethnic or religious identity is a basic human right enshrined by the United Nations Charter. It is questionable whether or not the new EU history project in the Balkans will be able to accommodate those human rights in Croatia however.
"Reconciliation through education" is the motto adopted by the Stability Pact in its new Balkan 'History Workbook' project. This project is being developed by the Centre for Democracy and Reconciliation which will present history from a multi-perspective approach, allegedly to eradicate ethnocentrism. The EU's Stability Pact will be called the Regional Cooperation Council in the future and that name change indicates that the next phase of their agenda in the former Yugoslavia is being launched, namely 'conflict resolution'. Conflict Resolution doctrine theorizes that the conflict management process can be thought of as a continuum from total destruction of the other to complete integration with the other". This doctrine artificially imposes reconciliation between former adversaries by building upon the coexistence which was in place before the conflict began in a process of "Peace Learning". It would seem that the EU "Reconciliation through Education" advocates are experimenting with the "Peace Learning" theory.
The disturbing part of this process is that its foundation rests on 'what existed before'. Thus, in place of the former Yugoslavia, we have advocates of an artificial Western Balkan state, with the unstable foundation of the alleged previous peace of the 'negotiated social order'.
The problem is that the previous 'social order' in the former Yugoslavia translated into Serbian-led control of the workplace, education, Orthodox religion, government and military. Foreigners who were shocked at the Serbian bombing of Sarajevo had believed that a successful coexistence existed there before because of the state-manufactured illusion conjured up for the Winter Olympics.
Unfortunately there is no foundation of justice and human rights to build on from the former Yugoslav state. From the perspective of Croatian families who have been subjected to genocide under the former Yugoslavia, their sacrifice for freedom will now be reinterpreted again, this time in schools. The Croatian leaders should ask why their former masters get to alter the new EU history workbooks before they do. From past experience Croats know that this alternative 'multi-perspective' history will serve Serbian nationalism in Croatia, and never reconciliation, because there is no evidence that Serbian nationalism has moderated.
The reason for the Serbian ascendancy in Croatia is more complex than mere irredentism. An east-west struggle between superpowers lurks behind the scenes. Croatia, like Greece, has contributed more to western civilization than eastern, but the conversion from Greek Orthodoxy to Serbian Orthodoxy in Croatian territory took Croatia away from western development.
In this essay I have given evidence to show that Croatian society has always been heterogeneous. And, I have shown that the Orthodox believers in Croatia have worshipped in their own Greek Orthodox churches during the past two thousand years. I have also discussed how those Greek Orthodox Churches in Croatia were taken over by the Serbian Patriarchate during Hungarian/Austrian occupation and the former Yugoslavia.
For centuries the Orthodox people in Croatia have been used as 'cannon fodder' and vassals, but not always by the East, as under the Ottomans and the Austro/Hungarian empire. The Venetians also used the Orthodox settlers to fight for their interests against the East. Under the Serbian-led former Yugoslavia however Croatia was taken again into the eastern bloc.
Even today the Serbian minority in Croatia wants to use all the Orthodox numbers for their 'greater-Serbia' ambitions. In 1991 Serbs in Croatia may have failed in their attempt to link territory to the issue of minority rights but in the 21st century there is evidence that their goals have not yet changed. For example around the world Serbian publicity about the 150th anniversary of Nikola Tesla reveals the emphasis placed on his alleged Serbian ancestry, even though contradictory evidence exists and his ancestors had lived in Croatian territory for centuries. Indeed, nowhere has it ever been written that Tesla's ancestry reaches back to 'Serbia' per se. Actually, the claims go only back to his origins in 'Herzegovina', where the absurd Serbian claim that all Vlachs there were of Serbian ancestry is without foundation.
It would seem that some in the European Union want to 'contain' Croatia, and to do this they are bowing to Serbian intransigence in Croatia and in Bosnia & Herzegovina. This pro-Serbian sentiment in the EU illustrates how an east-west struggle still exists there, one reason why the European Union still has no constitution or unified foreign policy.
An atmosphere of greater religious freedom and equality in Croatia would go a long way towards reconciliation. For example, much confusion exists in Catholic sources about 19th century Croatian history. Conflicting information, with missing dates and incorrect sequencing of events, creates a maze which allows Serbian propaganda to continue unchallenged. It's as if the Nikola Tesla Museum complex is the reincarnation of the Yugoslav Academy of Arts and Sciences.
The following question needs to be answered. Why is lobbying for the creation of a Croatian Orthodox Church not 'politically correct' - after all, if Montenegro and Macedonia can have an Orthodox Church, why not Croatia? The metamorphosis of Croatian Orthodoxy under Serbian leadership for the past century has been the source of destabilization, and until the issue is resolved no reconciliation will occur at a grass roots level. Will the EU's alternative perspective 'history workbooks' reflect the will of the Croatian people? Perhaps only Croatian membership in NATO can create an east-west balance of power in Croatia. One thing is for certain, politically correct manipulation of history will not lead to reconciliation.
Serb church religion patriarchs and leaders with Serb war criminals and other Serb extremists during the kissing of the Serbian bread. A common scene throughout the 90's Serb wars of aggression, organized murder and ethnic cleansing campaigns, and also common today. The trance-like state of the extremist spectators/supporters in the background are detached from reality because the Serbian bread has become a symbolic tool to kill Non-Serbs, a bready mystical nourishment towards more Non-Serb/Turk deaths in their philosophy. The crumbly bread has become Serbian cereal that was made with the crushed powdery bones of Non-Serbs instead of flour, Serbian water then binds the bread loaf to make it easier to kiss. Both Serb bread kissers seen above are now being tried at the Hague for crimes against humanity, war crimes, organized mass murders and ethnic cleansing and yet are still Serb heroes/saints/martyrs in the Serb church and national psyche still even today.
At the end of WWII the Metropolitan Germogen and 42 priests of the Croatian Orthodox Church were executed under the Yugoslav communist regime by those who Obrknezevic described as "Great Serbian chauvinists" ... "a communist system was biased to such an extent regarding the existence of the Croatian Orthodox Church that it took a standpoint of militant intervention for the exclusiveness of the Serbian Orthodox Church, as the only Orthodox Church..." In the 21st century, as in the 19th and 20th century Serbia uses the Croatian parliament and the Serbian Orthodox church as a platform for their irredentist policies.
An atmosphere of greater religious freedom and equality in Croatia should be non-negotiable. Why is the creation of a Croatian Orthodox Church not 'politically correct' if every other nation in the world has its own national Orthodox church.
researched by Jean Lunt Marinovic
*The below image and information is an update in 2016, as information for the benefit of the reader and as supplementary information to some comments below.
Metropolitan Germogen (left) and Metropolitan bishop of the Russian Orthodox, Church Anthony of Sourozh.
Germogen (Georgy Ivanovich Maximov) was bishop of Aksay (9 May 1910 - 1919), Vicar of the Don Diocese, 23rd Bishop of Yekaterinoslav and Novomoskovsk (1919 - November 1920), Governor of the Russian Orthodox municipalities on Crete and North Africa with a seat in Athens (1922), Archbishop of Yekaterinoslav and Novomoskovsk (ROCOR, titular) (1922–1942), as well as a member of the Synod of Bishops of the Russian Orthodox Church Abroad (1924–1942) before becoming Patriarch (or Metropolitan) of the Croatian Orthodox Church. (Consecrated by Romanian Orthodox Church Metropolitan Visarion who was sent to Zagreb by the anti-communist Patriarch Nikodim Munteanu, Patriarch of All Romania) Metropolitan Anthony of Sourozh was a monk and Metropolitan bishop of the Russian Orthodox Church. He was also founder and for many years bishop - then archbishop, then metropolitan - of the Diocese of Sourozh, the Patriarchate of Moscow's diocese for Great Britain and Ireland, and exarch in Europe
After a new Yugoslav communist regime took over power on the 9th of May 1945, and in collusion with Serb Orthodox Church leaders, the Croatian Orthodox Church was immediately abolished and Germogen was arrested. The Serbian Orthodox Church leadership again demanded that they should be the only allowable Orthodox Church institution and organization in the new communist country (just as the years between 1919 and 1941 during the short lived Serb royal dictatorship) insisting that all and any Orthodox rite peoples in the new Communist state, (no matter what their ethnicity or national affiliation), should be subservient to and under control of the Serbian Orthodox Church only...
Serbian Nazi collaborator and Head of State and PM of war time Serbia, Milan Nedić (left) and a Serbian Orthodox Church leader blessing volunteers. The Serbian government under Nedić along with the unanimous support of the Serbian Orthodox Church leadership and their armed volunteers, were behind numerous atrocities against Non-Serbs (and even many Serbs) on their territory, but also helped arm Serb chetniks to commit massacres against Non-Serbs elsewhere also. Serb chetnik groups along with Serb Church support were particularly renown and notorious for committing numerous massacres against any civilians who did not join their ranks or support their cause while traveling in rural areas or wherever they were found. The Serbian Orthodox Church was de facto the sanctioned and imposed state religion between 1918-1941, being the religion of the former Serb dictator king. Serbian Orthodox Church willingness and enthusiastic support to help make an envisioned future so-called Greater Serbia cleansed and free of Jews (along with Non-Serbs) was deemed by their leadership and supporters even as a holy mission. History has shown numerous times that the sole fundamental purpose of the Serbian Orthodox Church has been to promote and even initiate policies, wars and massacres against Non-Serbs.
...Consequently the quickly put together main trial of Germogen was a fixed show trial, (ie; a public trial in which the judicial authorities have already determined the guilt of the defendant, without proofs, reasons and without any chance or opportunity to prove innocence against any charges. The actual show trial has as its only goal to present the accusation and the verdict to the public as an impressive example of power and as a warning to other would-be dissidents or transgressors) It was held on the 29th of June 1945 and Germogen was immediately found guilty by the new ad hoc Yugoslav and Serb Orthodox Church leadership for the crime of helping Croatian equal historical rights and of agreeing to officially serve as Patriarch of the Croatian Orthodox Church. Germogen was then beastially murdered in cold blood by firing squad with compliant Serb Orthodox leadership assent on the 30th of June 1945 at age 84.
(Eyewitness sources state that even though he was unjustly treated like a lamb to the slaughter, he never pleaded for mercy or recanted his decision to verily help bring the Croatian people their equal historical rights also)
Just one of numerous documented examples of the handiwork and methods of Serbian church supported chetnik irregulars in 1941, in this case children mutilated and bashed with hammer. As mentioned, the Serb chetnik groups along with Serb Church support were particularly renown and notorious for committing numerous massacres against any civilians and homes that did not join their ranks or support their cause while traveling in rural areas or wherever they were found.Five decades later, on 23 September 2010 the Synod of Bishops of the Russian True Orthodox Church (RIPC) held in the Church of Saint John of Kronstadt in Odessa (Ukraine), "declared Germogen as a Christian Orthodox martyr." The Synod of Bishops of the Russian True Orthodox Church also declared Serafim Kupčevski, Aleksij Borisov and others executed with Germogen as martyrs also. However, the Serbian Orthodox Church immediately expressed hate-filled outrage over this righteous decision against their wishes and lobbied vehemently to reverse the declaration of the Synod of Bishops of the Russian True Orthodox Church, and so 65 years later they murdered the innocent Germogen and the other martyrs in their graves once again as a further insult.
Serbian Orthodox Church supported chetnik groups first made an appearance during the Serbo-Bulgarian war of 1885, and again during the 1st and 2nd Balkan Wars of 1912-13, mainly known for committing atrocities against Bulgarian, Albanian and other Non-Serb civilians. They also appeared again in 1919 committing massacres against Montenegrin civilians also, again with full support of the Serbian Orthodox Church. (Click onto enlarged image HERE)
However, the self-styled Holy Synod of the Serbian Orthodox Church even to this day also refuses to acknowledge and recognize the Montenegrin Orthodox Church and the Macedonian Orthodox Church declared autocephaly and independence status, (Macedonian Orthodox Church – Ohrid Archbishopric, declared independent and autocephalous in 1967 and an Archbishopric history dating to 1019 ) as the Serbian Orthodox Church regards itself as the only and preeminent Orthodox institution in all those regions (even where Serbs are a very small minority) and has instead denounced their decisions, condemned their churches, historical/cultural heritage rights and especially their clergy as errant and schismatic.
* Although the Croatian lands are and have been for many centuries predominantly western Roman Catholic culturally and western-central European civilizationally oriented, in Croatia today the Montenegrin Orthodox Church and the Macedonian Orthodox Church are officially recognized by the state with full rights as national churches, along with the Croatian Greek-Catholics and other National Orthodox Church minorities.